From Raw Cotton to Cotton Fabrics
The fabric usually used in the clothes we wear is produced through two processes: the "spinning process," where raw cotton is turned into thread, and the "weaving process," where the thread is woven into fabric. Here we will explain each process in detail using some illustrations.
The Spinning Process
In weaving, the warp thread and weft yarn are crossed over one another in a set method in order to weave the required type of fabric. A machine designed to accomplish this task is called a loom. First, the warp thread and weft yarn are prepared so that they can be set into the loom.
- Cheese/cones are set on a warping machine to wind the predetermined length and number of yarns onto the predetermined number of warping beams under constant tension.
- The warping beams of the required number of warps of the final textile are piled up for rewinding on beams after sizing and drying.
- To prepare for setting beams on a loom, warps are routed in the order of droppers, healds and guide bars.
Prepared beams are set on a looming frame to weave a textile in the following five motions:
1. Shedding: two groups of warps are opened to let the weft pass through.
2. Picking: The weft is inserted between two groups of warps.
3. Beat-up: Pushing the newly inserted yarn back into the fell using reed.
4. Let-off: The warp yarns are unwound from the warp beam.
5. Take-up: The woven fabric is wound on the cloth beam.
- Inspection/ Folding
- The fabric is inspected and folded. Imperfections are corrected as required. The fabric is then graded.
- The fabric is packed in a manner appropriate to the shipping conditions.
- The finished product is sold.