From Raw Cotton to Cotton Fabrics

The fabric usually used in the clothes we wear is produced through two processes: the “spinning process,” where raw cotton is turned into thread, and the “weaving process,” where the thread is woven into fabric. Here we will explain each process in detail using some illustrations.

The Spinning Process

Mixing and blowing
To begin the spinning process, the compressed staple fiber delivered to the spinning plant is unraveled using a mixing and blowing machine. It is then cleaned by removing substance such as leaves, seeds, or sand adhering to it. Finally, the staple fiber is processed into sheet-shaped "lap."

The sheet-shaped lap processed in the mixing and blowing process is combed using the carding machine to separate the fibers and remove fine dust and short fibers. Remaining long fibers are aligned nearly parallel and collected to be processed into the string-shaped "carded sliver."

Sliver lap former
From 18 to 24 carded slivers are fed together and side by side. They are drafted and a loose form of web is created. The web is rolled up to a lap. This is called "sliver lap."

The carded sliver is further combed to remove short fibers and dust that could not be removed in the carding process. Fibers are then arranged parallel to obtain uniform combed sliver. This process is essential to manufacture uniform, high-quality yarn.

Six to eight slivers after the carding or combing process are gathered and elongated to six to eight times their original length using a drawing machine to straighten and remove uneven thickness from the fibers. This process transforms fibers into string-like "drawn sliver."

Since the drawn sliver is too thick to produce yarns directly, it is further elongated using a roving machine. Twisting is first applied to fibers in this process to obtain the green yarn, which is wound onto a bobbin.

In the fine spinning process, the last of the main spinning processes, the green yarn resulting from the roving process is further elongated to obtain a desired thickness and then twisted. The final product, or the finished yarn, is wound on a bobbin.

The winding process involves rewinding the finished yarn onto bobbins into the cheese or cone according to its purpose.

To weaving process

Weaving process

In weaving, the warp thread and weft yarn are crossed over one another in a set method in order to weave the required type of fabric. A machine designed to accomplish this task is called a loom. First, the warp thread and weft yarn are prepared so that they can be set into the loom.

Cheese/cones are set on a warping machine to wind the predetermined length and number of yarns onto the predetermined number of warping beams under constant tension.
The warping beams of the required number of warps of the final textile are piled up for rewinding on beams after sizing and drying.
To prepare for setting beams on a loom, warps are routed in the order of droppers, healds and guide bars.

Prepared beams are set on a looming frame to weave a textile in the following five motions:

1. Shedding: two groups of warps are opened to let the weft pass through.
2. Picking: The weft is inserted between two groups of warps.
3. Beat-up: Pushing the newly inserted yarn back into the fell using reed.
4. Let-off: The warp yarns are unwound from the warp beam.
5. Take-up: The woven fabric is wound on the cloth beam.

Inspection/ Folding
The fabric is inspected and folded. Imperfections are corrected as required. The fabric is then graded.
The fabric is packed in a manner appropriate to the shipping conditions.
The finished product is sold.